Menu Engineering & Profitability – The Science Behind the Art

Several of our previous restaurant cost control articles have been dedicated to the topic of recipe cost and menu development. This article will continue on that trend by examining the principles of menu engineering and how they can help improve restaurant profitability and food cost control. Today’s concept of menu engineering is a product of Michigan State University’s School of Hospitality, and the goal of the exercise is to comparatively rank your menu items according to both profitability and popularity and to then graph these results using the BCG Matrix. This matrix utilizes four quadrants, and though the names have changed a bit during their application to the hospitality industry, their meaning has remained generally consistent.

Quadrant Definitions:

“Stars” are those menu items that are both the most popular and the most profitable. These are often house specialties and are the menu items that you want to sell most frequently due to their high contribution margin.

“Plowhorses” are menu items that are above average in popularity, but not in profitability. Overall, these items produce consistent profit for the business, but are not stars because their contribution margin is below average.

“Challenges” are the converse of plowhorses. They are highly profitable menu items, but not very popular.

Finally, “Dogs” are those items that are neither popular nor profitable, in comparison to your other menu items. Serious consideration should be given to eliminating these items from the menu.

The Mechanics of Menu Engineering:

To determine the correct quadrant for each menu item, menu engineering looks at both the average popularity and contribution margin of your menu items. Based on the results, each menu item is plotted on a graph, using the average profitability and popularity as the x and y axes. Each quadrant corresponds to a particular menu engineering label, as illustrated below. While menu engineering labels can be assigned to menu items without actually completing a graphical representation, we do not recommend this. Completing a graphical menu analysis in addition to simply labeling each menu item with the appropriate quadrant tag will provide a more exact and complete picture into how each menu item ranks in comparison to others. A plotted menu item that is on the border of another quadrant may require a different approach than one that is firmly situated in a specific quadrant–a subtlety that is only noticeable when menu items are actually plotted on the graph. While this may seem complicated, it can actually be quite simple once you become familiar with the process. Further, by downloading our free menu engineering spreadsheet you will be able to execute many of these functions and graphs automatically.


Determining the average popularity is relatively simple, just take the reciprocal of the total number of menu items, expressed as a percent. For example, if you have twenty menu items, the average popularity would be 5% (1/20). Any menu item that represented more than 5% of the overall product mix sold would be considered a popular item, making the item either a star or a plowhorse, depending on the contribution margin of the item. To keep things simple, both popularity and profitability are automatically calculated in our free menu engineering spreadsheet.


Menu engineering uses contribution margin as the metric for defining profitability. To calculate the contribution margin of each item, one simply needs to deduct the ideal food cost from the menu price for each menu item. For example:

Menu Item Contribution Margin

Once the contribution margin is calculated for each menu item, the average can be easily calculated–divide the sum of each menu item’s contribution profit by the total number of menu items. Any menu item that has a contribution margin above this average would be considered “profitable,” making it either a challenge or a star, depending on the popularity of the item. Some schools of thought advocate the use of prime costs in contribution margin calculations, including incremental labor costs into the food cost figure, but unless this is a typical internal cost accounting practice for your operation, we do not recommend it.

Once you have determined the comparative popularity and profitability of each item, you can then graph the results using the specific calculations into a four quadrant graph and identify each item with the corresponding matrix label, as discussed previously. Again, to assist with executing the above steps, we recommend that you download our free menu engineering spreadsheet that will do these calculations for you. You can also develop your own restaurant spreadsheet with a little work or purchase one from various restaurant consultant agencies. Once this process is complete, however, the real work begins.

Analyzing the Results of Your Menu Analysis

The primary benefit of using menu engineering as your menu analysis tool is that after only a little preliminary work and calculation, you are …

Los Angeles Clippers – Fun Facts To Entertain The Whole Family!

The professional NBA (National Basketball Association) basketball team, the Los Angeles Clippers, is based in the California town of Los Angeles. Not always known as the Los Angeles Clippers, the team is very established as such now. The following fun facts are sure to get any basketball fan, or Los Angeles Clippers fan, a “slam dunk” of information. The Los Angeles Clippers and basketball history facts can be used: when you are bored in the car and want to play a game, for a homemade trivia game, or if you are just interested in learning on your own!

Fun Facts: Did You Know?

o Before the LA Clippers were the LA Clippers, the team held two other names and home locations? The team was called the Buffalo Braves from 1970-1978 and was located in Buffalo, New York. The team moved to San Diego and was the San Diego Clippers from 1978-1984. Only in 1984, did the team move to Los Angeles and become the famous Los Angeles Clippers!

o Paul Snyder was the original founder of the Los Angeles Clippers?

o For $20 million the San Diego Clippers became the Los Angeles Clippers? The owner of the San Diego Clippers sold the team to Donald T. Sterling, a high-end real estate developer and attorney.

o The Los Angeles Clippers were not the only professional NBA team based in the city of Los Angeles? The other team is the LA Lakers.

o One of the LA Lakers top players, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, was hired as an assistant coach for the LA Clippers in 1998? He was hired to help one of the Clippers’ star players, Michael Olowokandi, by tutoring him in the sport. Mr. Abdul-Jabbar’s stint on the Clippers only lasted for the duration of one season.

o The LA Clippers officially announced in 2005 that they were going to build their own first-class practice facility? This facility would mark the first official NBA practice facility in the Los Angeles area!

o Basketball was first invented in 1891 in Springfield, MA? Dr. James Naismith is credited with inventing it while he worked at the YMCA.

o The LA Clippers has three people affiliated with the team in the Basketball Hall of Fame? They are: Bob McAdoo, Bill Walton, and Coach Dr. Jack Ramsay.

o Basketball hoops were not made of net in the beginning? They were created from fruit baskets.

o The LA team, the Los Angeles Clippers, is officially placed in the Western Conference of the NBA?

o The Los Angeles Clippers team has no retired numbers?

o Basketball was created for the first time with a soccer ball? The sport was developed for some gym students who were bored between the business of football season (fall) and baseball season (spring).

o The two LA teams, the Clippers of Los Angeles and the LA Lakers, are still competing against one another as they live in the same city?

These fun facts are a great conversation starter; a cool way to entertain your family in the car or your friends in the school cafeteria; and a great way for you to build your own personal knowledge about one of America’s favorite sports!

Source by Margarette Tustle

Bob Ross Oil Painting Technique – Frequently Asked Questions

The following is a list of frequently asked questions about the BOB ROSS Oil Painting Technique and some instruction about the use and care of the materials.


This technique refers to the softening of hard edges and most visible brush strokes by blending the wet oil paint on the canvas with a clean, dry brush. In blending, an already painted area is brushed very lightly with criss-cross strokes or by gently tapping with the corner of the brush. This gives colors a soft and natural appearance. Not all oil paints are suitable for this technique – most are too soft and tend to smear. Only a thick, firm paint is suitable for this technique.


To mix paints to a marbled effect, place the different colored paints on the mixing area of your palette and use your palette knife to pick up and fold the paints together, then pull flat. Streaks of each color should be visible in the mixture. Do not over mix.


When mixing paints for application over thicker paints already on the canvas, especially when adding highlight colors, thin the paint with LIQUID WHITE, LIQUID CLEAR or ODORLESS THINNER. The rule to remember here is that a thin paint will stick to a thicker paint.


Painting with the wet on wet technique requires frequent and thorough cleaning of your brushes with paint thinner. An empty one pound coffee can is ideal to hold the thinner, or use any container approximately 5″ in diameter and at-least 6″ deep. Place a Bob Ross Screen in the bottom of the can and fill with odorless thinner approximately 1″ above the screen. Scrub the brushes bristles against the screen to remove paint sediments which will settle on the bottom of the can.

Dry your larger brushes by carefully squeezing them against the inside of the coffee can, then slapping the bristles against a brush beater rack mounted inside of a tall kitchen trash basket to remove the remainder of the thinner. Smaller brushes can be cleaned by wiping them with paper towel or a rag (I highly recommend using Viva paper towels because they are very absorbent). Do not return the brushes to their plastic bags after use, this will cause the bristles to become limp. Never clean your Bob Ross brushes with soap and water or detergent as this will destroy the natural strength of the bristles. Store your brushes with bristles up or lying flat.


Use the 2″ brush with long, firm vertical and horizontal strokes across the canvas. The coat of Liquid WHITE should be very, very thin and even. Apply just before you begin to paint. Do not allow the paint to dry before you begin.


I suggest using a palette at least 16″x20″ in size. Try arranging the colors around the outer edge of your palette from light to dark. Leave the center of the palette for mixing your paints.


To fully load the inside bristles of your brush first hold it perpendicular to the palette and work the bristles into the pile of paint. Then holding the brush at a 45 degree angle, drag the brush across your palette and away from the pile of paint. Flipping your brush from side to side will insure both sides will be loaded evenly.

(NOTE: When the bristles come to a chiseled or sharp flat edge, the brush is loaded correctly.)

For some strokes you may want the end of your brush to be rounded. To do this, stand the brush vertically on the palette. Firmly pull toward you working the brush in one direction. Lift off the palette with each stroke. This will tend to round off the end of the brush, paint with the rounded end up.


Place the tip of your brush into the can of LIQUID WHITE, LIQUID CLEAR or ODORLESS THINNER allow only a small amount of medium to remain on the bristles. Load your brush by gently dragging it through the highlight colors, repeat as needed. Gently tap the bristles against the palette just enough to open up the bristles and loosen the paint.


With your palette knife, pull the mixture of paint in a thin layer down across the palette. Holding your knife in a straight upward position, pull the long working edge of your knife diagonally across the paint. This will create a roll of paint on your knife.


There are no great mysteries to painting. You need only the desire, a few basic techniques and a little practice. lf you are new to this technique, I strongly suggest that you …

Numerology’s Life Path (3); the Path of the Entertainer

Ever meet someone who craves love and attention, and uses their wit and imagination to get it; someone who leads a charmed life? Chances are, they are part of the 11% percent of the population living on Life Path (3) the Path of the Entertainer. These individuals have birthdays which when summed, and then reduced by Fadic addition give us a (3) result.

(For example Hillary Rodham Clinton born on October 26th, 1947; 10 + 26 + 1947 = 1983 = 21 = 3)

Note that your Life Path is Numerology’s equivalent to your Sun Sign in Astrology; telling us what the primary factors are in shaping your Destiny.

Talents and Abilities

Entertainers main goal in life is to entertain people and make them happy. These people crave love and attention, and tend to use their sharp mind and vivid imagination to get it. Entertainers are happy and joyful; they always see the lighter side of life. Even when they are down, these people bounce back quickly. All Entertainers have a need to express themselves in some way, be it music, song, dance, drama, creative writing, or whatever.

Entertainers love life, and life seems to love them. They lead charmed lives, always getting that lucky break that lets them do their thing. These people tend to draw wealth to them, though they tend to spend it just as quickly. Entertainers are great at expressing themselves, and have a knack for picking up skills quickly and easily. They are regular party animals, and love being surrounded by people. They also tend to have talent as a dancer, or some other athletic skill.

Problem Areas for Entertainers

These people become bored easily, and suffer from restlessness. They always need to be doing something. They tend to have very lavish spending habits. They truly fear being alone, and are unable to cope with it even for a little while. Entertainers lack endurance, and have to learn to pace themselves to complete longer task. They are capable of working at an incredible pace, but only at things which really inspire them.

Famous Life Path (3) Entertainers

Famous people with this Life Path include: Christina Aguilera, Alan Alda, Rene Auberjonois, Scott Baio, Alec Baldwin, Annette Bening, Mary J Blige, David Boreanaz, David Bowie, Brandy, Toni Braxton, Amy Brenneman, Jimmy Buffett, Jackie Chan, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Bill Cosby, Kevin Costner, Katie Couric, Billy Crystal, Carson Daly, Cameron Diaz, Vin Diesel, Celine Dion, Snoop Dogg, Jenna Elfman, Nora Ephron, Mia Farrow, Bridget Fonda, Jodie Foster, Jamie Foxx, Brendan Fraser, Janeane Garofalo, Jeff Gordon, Peter Graves, Melanie Griffith, John Grisham, Lauren Holly, K. D. Lang, Eriq LaSale, Jet Li, John Lithgow, Andie MacDowell, John Malkovich, Liam Neeson, Daniel Radcliffe, Joan Rivers, Chris Rock, Winona Ryder, Steven Seagal, William Shatner, Brooke Shields, Neil Simon, Kevin Spacey, Jon Stewart, Michael Stipe, John Travolta, Shania Twain, Barbara Walters, Reese Witherspoon, and Elijah Wood.

Source by Keith Abbott

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Web-To-Print Process

The growth of the internet has opened up multiple avenues for new ventures to enhance their business offerings and increase revenue from online channels. Web-to-print is one of the industries that is still in its initial phase, slowly gathering momentum as more and more offline printing businesses are adopting the internet.

But nonetheless, it’s growing at a rapid pace. If you are starting a web-to-print business, or thinking of extending your brick and mortar printing shop to provide online services, you should understand clearly about what you are getting into.

Let’s look at the pros and cons of the web-to-print process.


Ease of transaction

There is no need to take time off to go to the printers office and order your goodies. Web-to-print enables the customers to buy their desired stuff within a few clicks. It gets easier for the printer too as they don’t have to explain everything to each customer. All the information, templates, and products are online. They just have to sort-out the orders accordingly.

Reduce costs

The cost of printing is reduced without compromising the quality of the product. The printer can now focus only on the products instead of refurbishing his shop and other things that is required when dealing face-to-face with the customer.

Faster Process

The printing process gets much faster when everything is managed automatically. The printer receives the order, prints it, and ships it to the customer. No mid processes involved. The printer does not have to hoard the orders till the customer drops in to pick up his order.

Wide market

While offline printers can just reach customers nearby or some fixed clients, web-to-print allows the business to transact beyond local, state, and international boundaries. Printers can take orders from anywhere in the world, given they can manage appropriate shipping facilities.


Even though web-to-print certainly boosts up your sales and generate amazing revenues, there are a few disadvantages related to the web-to-print process as well. Let’s look at the major ones:

Missing expert touch

When a printer is offline, the customer can go and work with the print software professional to get the desired design. As the printer is an expert in editing, the work is much more refined and desirable to many customers. On the other hand, web-to-print can just offer templates which have to be modified by the customers accordingly. Expert recommendations on the designs are missing in web-to-print processes.

Expensive for small printers

The web-to-print service often requires the use of digital systems. Also, their limited access to software and server system solution might end up being a hurdle. Given the cost of resources that need to be a successful ecommerce business, it might not suit best for small scale printers.

Simple products

The entire process including the products on offer has to be simple. For more complex personalized items, it would be difficult to estimate the costs of the product given the finishing and additional charges the work might demand. Web-to-print businesses can be only successful for enterprises aiming to sell simple products like mugs, t-shirts, stationery, apparels, etc.

Source by Pratik Shah

Why Do People Read Magazines?

Magazines are a great source of information and entertainment. People who are regular magazine readers tend to be the most informed about the world. The subject matter of magazines varies as much as the world around us. The choice is completely up to you: It could be health, education, fashion, movies, technology, science, business and the economy, sports, lifestyle, travel and tourism, or anything in between. Besides reading magazines at home, you’ll also find them in hotels, airplanes, offices, salons and just about any place with a waiting room.

Women tend to read magazines more frequently than men. They usually enjoy fashion, beauty, health, celebrity gossip and home-care magazines. Men, however, have their own favorite topics, including sports, technology and business. There are plenty of magazines to meet their interests, too. Regardless of your gender or your interests, there’s a magazine to fill your informational needs and appetite. Frequency of publication is usually weekly or monthly, though there are some bi-monthlies, quarterly and annual magazines.

?Who is likely to subscribe to magazines?

Many households count magazine subscriptions as a regular expense just like groceries and electricity. These families are able to stay well informed about the world and up to date on their favorite subjects. And all this information is delivered straight to their mailbox every week or every month.

Many offices also regularly subscribe to magazines, primarily for two reasons:

1. To keep employees aware of the latest development in the company’s industry.

2. To entertain guests while they wait for appointments.

Outside of homes and offices, you’ll find other organizations taking advantage of cheap magazine subscriptions. These include salons and doctor’s offices, where people have to wait for appointments. Magazines are perfect for this situation, as they give customers a chance to catch up with world events and other interests while they wait. A wide selection of magazines in a waiting room is considered to be very professional and courteous. all this information is delivered straight to their mailbox every week or every month.

Online subscription:

These days, you buy everything online. Cheap magazine subscriptions are no exception. By subscribing to a magazine online, you have instant access to great articles in the print edition as well as content published outside the regular publication cycle. Publishers are offering nearly all their magazines online, and you’ll often find them for less cost than a regular print subscription. Give it a try: Just type your favorite magazine’s name into your favorite search engine and pick the deal that works for you.

Why should I go for monthly subscription?

If you are fond of a particular magazine, you should buy a monthly subscription rather than purchasing each issue separately at a store. There are several reasons: First, a subscription will save you money. Most publishers offer substantial discounts for magazine subscriptions. Second, many offers include free gifts, such as a tote bag or an extra publication. Third, you don’t have to worry about your favorite magazine being unavailable when you drop by the newsstand. Each issue will be conveniently delivered to your mailbox every week or every month, depending on the frequency of publication.

There are also a number of magazines targeted specifically at children and their interests. By subscribing to one of these, you’ll be encouraging your child to read. He’ll also have something to look forward to every week or month. Your teenagers will also enjoy a subscription. There are a number of titles specifically geared to their interests, too.

Magazines provide a wealth of information, entertainment and peace of mind. A subscription is one of the least expensive ways to keep you and your family informed, entertained and happy. If you own a business, you owe it to your employees and customers to offer a range of magazines. The choice of subject is yours. Subscribe today!

Source by Andrew Waughs

How To Keep Your Artwork As Fresh As The Day It Was Created

Clueless about how to protect the beautiful acrylic painting you received as a birthday gift? Wondering how to mat and frame your new watercolor? Here’s a handy guide on how to care for your precious artwork, no matter what media it was created in.

. Handling

. Storage

. Transporting

. Matting

. Framing

. Laminating

. Display

. Cleaning

Special care for different types of media

. Acrylics

. Oils

. Watercolors

. Pastels

. Charcoal, Pencil, Colored pencil, Crayon drawings

. Ink drawings

. Digital art


Always use great care in handling artwork. Never touch the surface of the art with your bare fingers as the natural oils, acids and salts on your skin can transfer to the artwork and cause permanent damage. If you must touch the art, wear cotton gloves.


Artwork not displayed should be stored in a clean, dry, dark and well-ventilated area in moderate temperatures and humidity levels that do not fluctuate a great deal. Avoid storage in basements, attics or garages as extreme temperatures and moisture can damage the artwork.

Store unframed art flat with acid-free paper between each item, or store individual items in archival-quality envelopes.

Avoid storing art between cardboard, as it is highly acidic and can damage artwork over time.

Store art created with charcoal, pastels, pencil or crayon between glass to avoid rubbing and damaging the delicate artwork. Preferably mat the item first with an acid-free mat and then cover it with glass to protect the artwork from any kind of contact with its surface.

Never store unframed art in shipping tubes for any length of time. Remove the art as soon as possible and lay it flat until you are ready to frame it. If a painting has been stored in a tube for a long time, consult a professional who will use the utmost care and expertise in unrolling and relaxing the artwork to avoid possible cracking and damage.

Never store framed art directly on the floor. Instead, rest the artwork on blocks or on shelves.


Never leave artwork in your car for extended periods of time. Carry framed artwork by the sides and avoid resting canvas against any items that may damage the surface.

Roll prints carefully and insert into heavy duty shipping tubes. Remove the artwork and unroll as soon as possible after transport to avoid permanent damage.


Have your artwork matted with an acid-free mat board. Poor quality mats may damage art over time due to the chemicals in the board that can transfer to the artwork. The same is true for backing your art with cardboard which also has chemicals that may cause discoloration.

Never use rubber cement or white glue to adhere the art to a surface as it can cause damage to your precious artwork.


Art created with ink, pencil, pastels or charcoal should be framed under glass. You may use Plexiglas only for pencil or ink drawings as any pastel or charcoal artwork may be damaged by the build-up of electrostatic charge emitted from Plexiglas and similar plastics.

Make sure to completely seal the back seams of the frame and backing with acid-free tape.

To further protect your print from harmful UV rays you can ask your framer to use glare-free glass with a UV protective coating to cover the artwork in the frame.

The frame you choose should be slightly larger than your artwork. Humidity may cause the paper to contract or expand and the extra space between the frame and artwork will allow for these changes without damaging the art.

Never frame artwork without also using a mat board between the art and frame. Wood may hold humidity that can transfer to the artwork. You can use acid-free frame spacing instead of matting, if you prefer. Ask your art store to see what is available.

Also, if you have a glass insert to protect the artwork, make sure you add a mat to prevent the art from sticking to the glass over time.


Since nearly all laminating materials have UV inhibitors in them it makes sense to consider this option for protecting your prints, photos and digital art as well as other artwork such as delicate pastels and charcoals.

Consult a photo store to ensure that this process will not damage the artwork you’re thinking of laminating.

Either bring your print or photo to a photo shop to have it professionally laminated to a base, or use a laminating machine if you would rather use a frame.

A laminating machine that uses a heat process will protect the print more than a machine using cold lamination. Be careful of low-end laminators with fluctuating temperatures that can result in bubbles between the print and the plastic, incomplete lamination or variations in thickness of …

Snow Blindness: Symptoms, Prevention, & Treatment

What Is Snow Blindness?

Snow blindness is a condition where the eyes have been exposed to too much of the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays, it is also called photokeratitis. It is a painful condition and people who are travelling outside in snowy conditions/terrain, such as across a snowfield or in a high-altitude winter location and not wearing the correct eye protection are most at risk from this condition. Snow blindness can affect people that live in snowy environments, such as the polar regions, and it can also affect people that undertake outdoor activities in snowy conditions like skiing, hiking, snowboarding etc. It is advised to protect the eyes from snow blindness that people wear sunglasses or snow or glacier goggles that fully block out the sun’s UV rays. The sun’s UV rays can burn the cornea which causes photokeratitis in the above-mentioned conditions. People may not notice the effects of photokeratitis for numerous hours after the exposure to the sun’s strong rays.

What Are the Symptoms of Snow Blindness?

There are various symptoms of photokeratitis but they can include eye pain, blood shot eyes, excessive tearing, and eyelid twitching which cannot be controlled. One of the most common symptoms if feeling gritty or sandy eyes and in severe cases the eye can swell shut. As previously mentioned pain can be felt with snow blindness, this is caused by inflammation to the cornea from the lack of eye protection or insufficient protection to the sun’s UV rays. In some cases, photokeratitis, can cause loss of vision temporarily and in severe cases of repetitive exposure to the sun’s UV rays can cause permanent loss of vision.

How to Prevent Snow Blindness

People in snowy environments need to take correct measures to avoid snow blindness such as;

Sunglasses – sunglasses need to block out the sun’s UV rays efficiently from all angles, and sunglasses with 100% UVA and UBA protection would be recommended. Wrap-around or full coverage sunglasses would also be preferred as light needs to be prevented from getting in at the sides of sunglasses if travelling in snowy conditions/environments.

Glacier Goggles/Sunglasses – these are an alternative to sunglasses if struggling to find full coverage sunglasses. They look and fit like a normal pair of sunglasses but they have material at the sides and bottom to prevent the sun’s UV rays from getting in. The lenses of these goggles are normally mirrored and polarised, which are darker than average sunglasses.

Snow/Ski Goggles – snow and ski goggles are very good for people in snowy conditions and are great if the conditions get windy or if there is a blizzard. Unlike sunglasses and glacier goggles/sunglasses, snow and ski goggles fit tightly around the eyes and give complete eye coverage. Again, lenses that are mirrored or dark would be recommended so they can be worn in sunny conditions and prevent snow blindness.

What Is the Treatment of Snow Blindness?

If there are any signs of photokeratitis the person must be removed as quickly as possible from the sun’s UV rays and any reflective surfaces. If available, then going inside a dark room or tent would be ideal. If contact lenses are worn these must be removed, place a dark cloth over the eyes and no do rub or touch the eyes. If close enough to a town or city it may be a good idea to head to an eye clinic or ophthalmologist, especially if there is ongoing pain. If this is not possible, then placing a cool compress on the eyes can help reduce pain. Snow blindness can take around 1-3 days to heal if kept indoors away from the sunlight and completely covering the eyes with eye pads or other material to completely block out light can help quicken the process. It is also important to visit an eye doctor once available, even if the snow blindness has healed, as they will check the eyes for any long-term damage the snow blindness may have caused and give any advice to reduce the chance of it happening again.

Source by Samer Hamada

Music As an Expression of Identity

Since the beginning of time, music has been used as an expression of cultural identity. Ancient tribal societies used music as a foundation for gatherings and to express their history, ethnicity, and cultural beliefs. Music has changed throughout the ages, but the use of music as an essential part of cultural and individual expression has changed very little.

Music’s integral connection to identity is often difficult to recognize, especially in today’s society where music may not be viewed as being as message-oriented as it once was. There were times when entire generations or cultures of individuals each knew the same songs. During World War II, entire nations of people sang songs that expressed their national identity with their cause and their connection to their fighting forces. Again, with the protest songs of the 1960’s and 1970’s, the people of the nation explored their feelings about war, youth, and racial unrest. And, as music as a form of expression has grown, different individuals within the same society have come to identify with varying forms of music as their own individual expression of self.

Although music may not be as blatantly descriptive as the songs of decades past, music speaks to the individual in the same way that the individual speaks through music. A nation of parents sat perplexed as their children became entranced by the sounds of rock and roll, and now there are as many types of music to identify with as there are generational cliques to adapt the musical message. Parents are still perplexed by youth who dress like Britney Spears and Eminem and who use language expressed in song. The addition of music videos has also added a note to self-expression through music that wasn’t present until the last few years. Unlike past generations, today’s youth can see how the music is being expressed and can identify visually with their chosen genre. Television and the internet have also allowed international peoples to share their cultures through music.

Whether music is viewed as being an influence on youth or as being influenced by youth, is still secondary to the fact that it has always been present as a socializing factor. Whether that socialization takes place as a part of a group membership or as a way to express individuality, there is no way to ignore the fact that the influence and expression of music expands as the world community shares more of its musical styles. People may find that music speaks to them in a certain way, moves them in a certain way, or that they identify with its message. People may also find that they can use music to express themselves as individuals as well as to conform to a group. Doubtless, music and its connection to individual and group identity will take on new forms as people continue to be exposed to varying forms of music and culture.

Source by Rebecca Stigall

Subliminal Perception – How it Works

What is subliminal perception? Does it really affect your mind and behavior? Subliminal CDs and programs are one of the most recent tools in the self-development field that offers the promise of helping people make dramatic life changes conveniently, inexpensively and with little effort. But, to what degree does subliminal programming work?

Subliminal Perception, A Natural Process…

Perception is the natural, normal way you receive impressions from your environment. Subliminal refers to information that is perceived below the level of conscious awareness. Normally, you pay conscious attention to a very small percentage of information that you experience through our sense and your mind. Try this test: take a moment to focus your attention on the sounds around you and you will discover there are many background noises you normally completely ignore…consciously that is. These sounds probably include traffic noise, machinery, conversations, birds, insects, etc. Nevertheless you are aware of this constant bombardment of stimuli, even though it is perceived below your conscious awareness by your extremely receptive and sensitive subconscious mind.

Interest in subliminal communication first developed shortly after Freud presented his revolutionary idea that we all have a hidden, unconscious mind. One of Freud’s contemporaries, Dr. O. Poetzle, developed and tested theories related to the effect of subliminal stimulation on dream content. In 1917, Poetzle was the first scientist to demonstrate the close relationship between subliminal stimuli and posthypnotic suggestion. His discovery, called the Poetzle Effect, indicates that subliminal perceptions evoke dreams and actions days or weeks after the original perception.

In the last 50 years, many hundreds of carefully controlled scientific studies have been conducted on subliminal perception. An abundance of scientific data resulting from decades of research indicates that subliminal perception does occur and information perceived subliminally does affect the unconscious or subconscious mind. And most importantly, subliminal programming has been shown to be an effective tool for influencing and changing behavior. Controversy over subliminal stimuli arises precisely because it does influence people’s behavior without their conscious awareness.

Subliminal Messages Used in Stores to Reduce Shoplifting…

It was discovered that subliminal messages could be masked in music or other audio programs. An article in TIME magazine in 1979, titled, ‘Secret Voices,’ reported that nearly 50 department stores in the U.S. and Canada were using subliminal messages in the music systems to reduce shoplifting and employee theft. One East Coast chain was reported to have reduced theft by 37%, amounting to the phenomenal savings of $600,000 over a nine-month period.

A similar story in the WALL STREET JOURNAL in 1980 stated the installation of a subliminal message system in a New Orleans supermarket accounted for a drop in pilferage loss from almost $50,000 per six months to ‘the astounding figure of less than $13,000’ – an all time low! Cashier shortages dropped from $125 per week to less than $10 per week. Subliminal messages found to be effective were statements like, “I take a great deal of pride in being honest. I will not steal. I am honest.”

Scientific Evidence: Subliminal Messages Influence Behavior

Extensive Documentation of Subliminal Perception

In his scholarly work titled “Preconscious Processing,” Dr. Norman Dixon, a psychologist at University College in London, England, summarizes 748 scholarly research studies on subliminal perception.

Included in Dixon’s authoritative work is a research study by Zuckerman (1960), that revealed a subliminal stimulus can by-pass conscious intent, and that it makes it unlikely a person would resist instructions which are not consciously experienced. Zuckerman required his subjects to write stories around Thematic Apperception Test cards. Superimposed on the ambiguous pictures on the cards were either the subliminal message, “Write More” or “Don’t Write.” As long as the instructions were subliminal, these messages had the desired effect. However, as soon as they were able to be perceived consciously, the messages had no consistent effect.

Behavioral Improvements Result from Subliminal Messages…

Dr. Lloyd H. Silverman, a psychologist at New York University, has been at the forefront of subliminal testing for 20 years. His work, with over 40 groups of subjects, has shown significant improvements in behavior after exposure to selected subliminal messages. IN a 1980 study, Silverman incorporated a subliminal message into a treatment of half of a group of smokers trying to quit smoking using behavior modification therapy. One month after treatment ended, 66% of the group exposed to the activating subliminal stimulus were still non-smokers, compared with 13% of the control group. Silverman says the positive effect of subliminal messages has been observed in assertiveness training classes, adolescents receiving psychotherapy, college students in group therapy, alcoholics in Alcoholics Anonymous counseling, and in people undergoing behavior modification for insect phobias and overeating.

Subliminal Messages Improve Academic Performance…

An article in the Journal of Counseling Psychology, Volume 29, 1982, reports on a study by Dr. Kenneth Parker, a psychologist at Queens …

How to Make Gray and Brown Paint Using Primary Colors

This title was presented by the Editors as a challenge, so how could a painter resist it? My first reaction was to wonder why anyone would bother, when more subtle and compatible neutrals can be achieved in other ways. I could visualise how it might be done but I had not tried it in reality. So, still in my night-dress, I slipped out to the studio early this morning and experimented. See what you think of my results, below.

And for those readers who are taking the first steps on their journey towards becoming an artist, I will add some definitions as we go along.

  • So, What is a Neutral Hue?

Neutral hues: The Neutrals can be crudely classed as Grays or Browns. In experienced hands, they are a number of extremely subtle blends of the colours used throughout a painting. They can, however, be made by mixing the three Primaries. Here’s how:

1) Making Grays

The simplest way to achieve Gray from mixing the three Primaries is this: Blend equal parts of Blue and Red, resulting in a crude Purple. Into that mix add small portions of Yellow until a dark Gray appears. To lighten its Chroma* you can – very carefully – add small quantities of White.

*What is Chroma?

This value refers to the darkness or lightness of a colour.

2) Making Browns

Blend equal parts of Blue and Yellow, resulting in a crude Green. Into that mix add small portions of Red until you achieve a suitable Brown. For example, you may want a Brown of less intensity or Chroma for your current painting.

It might seem obvious to add White to your new Brown mix. But this would be a huge mistake. Instead, add more Yellow.

  • How to Avoid Making Mud

All of this mixing should take place on your palette, using a palette knife. This is the one and only way to achieve ‘clean’ colour mixes, vital when you are using Gray or Brown. In the excitement of creating a new painting, it is fatally easy to reach for a brush and start mixing colour straight onto your canvas. Despite what you see in Hollywood movies about famous artists, you can never get all the pigment out of the bristles by wiping your brush on a rag or by rinsing it in turps. The residue of colour will end up in the new mixes and turn them into mud.

TIP. I urge you to get into the habit of using your brushes for laying on the paint, never for mixing it.

  • Other ways to make Neutrals

You can make far more subtle Neutrals from the colours you are using in your current painting. For example, if you are painting a landscape with storm clouds above, you have likely used Cobalt Blue mixed with White in the sky background. If you wish to make a Gray to define those clouds further, you can do this:

  • Take some of your Cobalt Blue, mix it with its Complement* – Burnt Sienna – and you will get a subtle gray tone that you can vary by mixing in some White.

*What is a Complement?

This is the colour which is opposite the Dominant* Hue on the Colour Wheel. For example, the Complement – or opposite – of Blue-Purple is Yellow-Green.

*What is a Dominant Hue?

You’ve guessed this one, right? It is the colour or Hue used most extensively in the painting you’re working on. So, if your painting is a portrait and you need to enhance the subject’s hair colour with a dark but neutral Brown, try this:

  • Mix the Red earth, such as Burnt Sienna – that you have already used for skin-tones in your portrait painting – with Ultramarine Blue to make a deep but neutral Brown.

When you want to make Neutrals, either from the Primaries or in other ways, experimenting is the only way to find the mixtures best suited to your personal style and chosen subject matter. A bonus is the fun you’ll have doing it.(C)Dorothy Gauvin

Source by Dorothy Gauvin

Pickle Jar Theory of Time Management

The proverb that time is money is not true in the literal sense, as one can gain money if lost, but time cannot be made up by any means, once it has been wasted. The proverb, in its true sense, means to treat time with the due respect it deserves and utilize it wisely.

Regardless of your intentions, it is easy to come to the end of the day and feel like you have not really accomplished anything. Unfortunately, this is a cycle that often repeats itself, even when you tell yourself you will change.

Time cannot be saved. But if you plan your time, you can manage it wisely. Consider a pickle jar containing stones, pebbles and sand where stones denote your life activities, pebbles denote your secondary activities and sand denote the fun and entertainment in your life. If you fill the jar with sand fully, then you will not have space for the stones and pebbles.

The daily tasks can be categorized into three states of materials. They are stones, pebbles, and sand according to their importance. As stones are bigger they refer to important tasks which are to be done as quickly as possible. They are our steps to reach our goals. They are rigid and somewhat difficult to work with. But they have to be done. Next comes the pebbles. They are less important tasks which may help the stones that are the more important tasks. The last is the sand. It is our daily tasks which don’t help in reaching ambitions but to satisfy our needs for entertainment or social interaction.

When one fills the pickle jar with sand, we find that it can only be filled with that and nothing else can be accommodated. This is similar to the real-life situation where we fill up our life with a lot of unimportant tasks and find no time for the important ones. The same situation can be changed; this is given by the prioritization theory of the pickle jar. When we put stones inside the jar we can find a lot of gaps in between them. Consider these are the most important jobs. We can then fill the lesser, but considerably important jobs in the gaps, that is using the pebbles and then the other jobs can be accommodated in the gaps left by pebbles using the sand. Now, we have accommodated all kinds of tasks.

Dedicate your mindset into accepting and vowing to use time management skills to use your time wisely. Write a list of actions you can take, personal action items that will help lead you to your goals. Do this right now, or at least before you go to bed tonight. List your priorities first and then think of some secondary tasks. View your priorities as large stones, your secondary goals as pebbles and the small everyday stuff as sand which acts as filler.

One should first set some priorities. We should first decide what is most important to us in life. We should learn to prioritize between family, money and health. We should set the goals and then allow the most important tasks which are important to achieve the goal to get most of our time and we should give them top priority. Now, after deciding over what is important we can decide what we can do in the spare time we have. There are many things we can do, some of them are: volunteering for doing something good, being a part of your community’s workforce or just chilling out for some time with friends. These are the pebbles that we can spend some time on after we finish the most important jobs needed for our goal. After all such things have been done, we can do a little bit of detailing on what kind of work we like to do in the rest of the time that would be great to do though not so important as they are not needed to be a part to achieve our main goal it might give us something to enjoy. Things like going for a pleasant walk or having a break for tea.

Let us consider that the whole amount of space in the pickle jar is equivalent to 24 hours of the day. Ask yourself what jobs you will give highest priority if you are going on a vacation next week and do what you will have to do for sure before leaving, these jobs will the stones that you will put in the jar because of their priorities. One has to repeat the same process of prioritizing till all the top ones are identified. We can just stop with prioritizing only the most important things in life that is required to achieve the next target rather than prioritizing everything. …

Who Does Art Belong To?

Lawyers can fight for pretty much the rights, the justice (ideally) of nearly any subject from pharmaceuticals, corporate, criminal, divorce, and my favorite even art. It’s always a question of appropriation, what belongs to whom. In the case of art this is going to go way over anyone’s head because nobody has a clear definition of art (this changes all the time) and then there’s the issue of who owns the art.

Is it the creator? Does the artist really own the art since they really don’t have anything appropriated to the work of art once it has left the studio. In terms of appropriation there is such a thing as artist resale rights (or droit de suite in French the origin of the term) where the artist is allowed to claim royalties, a percentage of a final sale price when a public transaction has been made. However artist resale rights only exist in certain countries (not the USA mostly) so whether the art belongs to the original creator might depend on your nationality? Seems a bit manipulative.

Then there’s the artist gallery relationship. The artist produces the work, but the gallery representing the artist has some ownership rights over the work- they generally get a generous 50% cut of the final sale price for all the work they do to get the art noticed. But then if belonging changes through transactions if the art is bought then does the buyer then own the art? Is it an object with interchangeable rights dependent on that monetary exchange? Some people might even argue that art should belong to the people, this proletariat view seems to be easiest to fight for, but private viewing minimizes that belonging to the person with the biggest pocket book.

Let’s say art does belong to everyone, to the world, art is a child of the world and therefore is owned and belongs to everyone.

They also say beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Sometimes it’s argued art only exists to serve its when there is a viewer at hand (meaning art for arts sake belongs to itself.) This cliché statement poses so many problems for instance not all art is beautiful, aesthetics doesn’t imply beauty. If art is so subjective that belonging changes according to the viewer then appropriation of art is practically impossible- so why even fight about and create laws for it?

Then why is it whenever there is a conversation between artworks, if too much is ‘borrowed’ from one work a lawsuit of copyright issues arises?

Examples are Shephard Fairey and the Associated Press concerning the Obama Hope posters. The Associated Press is suing Fairey for copyright infringement among other things because he mass produced a picture originally owned by the AP without permission (with his artistic interpretation of course not the exact photograph) The truth is had his posters not made such a statement and if some small scale artist had done the same without as much exposure, conversation, money…it probably would’ve gone unnoticed and been treated as a compliment. Jealousy is a dangerous and vicious creature.

Then there is someone like Richard Prince where the work is mostly a collage of photographs from ads with recognizable brands and figures for these brands. He has been sued by many of the original ‘producers’ of these creative advertisements. He generally uses these photographs out of their original intent and context to create his own collages without of course demanding for the right to use them. But did these originals belong to anyone in the beginning?

It is true a lot of initial work goes into the creation of these photographs especially if a photographer has worked 10 years earning the trust of Rastafarians in the mountains to produce a body of work with a specific intent. But does it end there? Isn’t art about a conversation between already existing work of art, it would be limiting to have the appropriation end any potential discourse. Maybe influence and inspiration should be given credit and maybe explained a bit rather than claiming a whole work as completely original in every way possible.

Then there is what commission can do for appropriation. If a piece is commissioned, does the artwork then belong to the decisions of the pocket book owner? Richard Serra found this out the hard way when he filed a $30 Million lawsuit against the General Services Administration (GSA) for a sculpture he had created called “Tilted Arc” at the 26 Federal Plaza in Lower Manhattan and it was very site-specific meaning the creation of the piece was adapted and largely depended on its physical location. It wouldn’t make sense had it been transferred unlike a painting from one gallery to another. The GSA who had commissioned the work were adamant on …

What Visa Do I Need For an Internship in India?

This, in fact, is a very complex question. In India, there are many different types of visa, for example for tourists, businessmen, journalists, and researchers. International interns come to India on several different types of visa: Tourist Visa, Entry Visa, Employment Visa, Business Visa or Student Visa, none of them being applicable to all internship scenarios.

The Entry Visa (X Visa) is generally for people whose purpose of visit to India does not fit into any of the standard visa categories, such as people coming for short term courses, volunteer work, or unpaid internships to India. You should apply for an Entry Visa along with a copy of the offer letter stating the terms of your internship position. If you are a student and the internship is part of your studies you should also obtain a letter from your university explaining why you are going to India.

Internships with a “stipend”, allowance or salary are generally considered to be paid internships and these technically demand an Employment Visa (which requires additional documentation such as the employment contract and a proof from the employer that no suitable Indian national could be found to fill the position). However, many organisations might directly ask you to come on a Tourist Visa because it is easier for them and for the applicant – although it is technically not legal.

Before applying for any kind of visa make sure that your passport is valid for at least 6-18 months, depending on your specific visa. Applicants who are not citizens in their country but residents must send a copy of their residence permit with the application. It is always advisable to consult the respective embassy in your country, for example the Indian embassy in Spain, Germany, Italy etc. There you will find most of the information considering your visa.

Source by Daniel Ratheiser

His Most Famous Painting (Eiffel Tower Series) – Robert Delaunay

French painter Robert Delaunay (1885-1941) was a truly dynamic artist from the twentieth century. His art style kept shifting between the triangular creative zone formed of ‘Orphism,’ ‘Abstraction,’ and ‘Cubism.’ Robert’s ‘The Eiffel Tower Series’ consisted of the most powerful works of his life. The Tower, the very icon of urbanization, always fascinated Delaunay. Being a radio tower, the Tower represented boundless communication and its unique construction was symbolic of the evolving machine age. Robert created around 30 works (sketches, window paintings, and oil paintings) using Eiffel Tower as the subject, during his self-termed ‘destructive phase.’ All these paintings depict the tower surrounded by tall buildings, from different angles and viewpoints. Three oil paintings from the ‘Eiffel Tower Series,’ created between 1909 and 1912, are considered Delaunay’s true art masterpieces.

The three famous oil paintings from Robert’s Tower Series were:

o Tower with Trees (49 ¾” x 36 ½” canvas)

o Tower (Tour Eiffel) – Measuring 79 ½” x 54 1/2″ canvas, this painting shows the tower emerging from the drape of skyscrapers around.

o The Red Tower (63 ¼” x 50 5/8″ canvas)

The ‘Eiffel Tower Series’ by Robert Delaunay epitomizes ‘Modernism.’ All the paintings are dramatic portrayals, pulsating with energy and present an elusive visual. A vibrant flow of vivid colors, form a pool of interesting abstracts. All three paintings present an angular view of the Tower. Robert has used a bright but narrow color palette, such as red, orange, brown, gray, white, black, and the shades of blue, in his ‘Tower Series.’ His innovative approach in the series was free from all the then set creative norms, ‘Impressionist’ landscapes to be precise.

Delaunay adapted a distinctive style, which appears ‘Cubist’ in nature with a touch of ‘Fauvism’ (due to the use of vibrant color). He invented the non- imitative form of art, where color, instead of an object-inspired form, plays a key role in the painting. The fragmented layers of color form the fascinating patterns of fractured spaces, left to be perceived by the viewers mind. The genius of these very futuristic illustrations tends to provoke the inner physic and elevate one to a different level of self-awareness.

Robert Delaunay’s unique conceptualization in ‘The Eiffel Tower Series,’ established his name as a pioneer in ‘Abstract Art.’ Clement Greenburg once said about Robert Delaunay, “He was an enterprising painter whose influence to the art world was much greater than his art.” The paintings “Eiffel Tower with Trees” and “Eiffel Tower” currently rest at the Guggenheim Museum, New York, while “The Red Tower” is at the Arts Institute of Chicago.

Source by Annette Labedzki

Legal Considerations When Planning Events

You’ve booked the speaker, hired a hall, recruited a team of volunteers and prepared a marketing plan. If that wasn’t enough, you must also ensure your event does not fall foul of various legal issues. Exact event legal requirements vary from place to place and the rules that apply depend on the type of event. The list below points out the major issues you need to think about, but you should also take advice from the administrator of the organisation(s) involved in your event. If you’re not sure about any of these items you can discuss them with your venue, as they should have experience with them.

Premises Licence

If you are going to invite the public to see a play, watch a film, or listen to live or recorded music, or something similar, you need to do so in premises that are correctly licensed. The licence will determine exactly what activities are permitted and between what hours. Don’t assume you can have a concert run beyond 11pm without checking the licence permits it. If the premises don’t have the correct licence you can get what’s called a Temporary Event Notice, which is effectively a short-term licence. For more information contact your local council.

Serving Alcohol

Selling or supplying alcohol is also regulated by the premises license. Not only do you need to have the correct license arrangement in place, you also need to ensure someone present is a Personal Licence Holder. The penalties for breaking the rules around the supply of alcohol can be very severe so take great care in this area.

Health & Safety Requirements

It’s essential to understand who is responsible for health and safety matters and to perform the correct risk assessments.

The venue will be responsible for premises-related health and safety, such as trip hazards from worn flooring, or emergency evacuation. But event organisers take responsibility for event equipment, such as trip hazards from power cables for speakers or other equipment brought into the venue.

You will need to perform risk assessments and document them. Think about what sort of things might go wrong and the possible outcomes.

Public Liability Insurance

You need to have public liability insurance in place for your event. What happens if an elderly visitor to your event slips in the car park and breaks their leg? Or if a piece of equipment falls on someone and injures them? These things do happen so you need to have the right insurance in place. Liaise with your venue to see what is covered by their insurance, and what isn’t.

Noise Levels

Usually you will only have issues with volume if your event features a particularly loud band or will take place late in the evening. Some premises are subject to noise abatement orders, meaning they’re legally obliged to measure noise and keep it below a certain level. Other premises need to give due care and attention to their neighbours.

Disabled Access.

All newer premises are required to provide full access and facilities for disabled people, but older premises are not. Event organisers do not have to ensure access for disabled people, but it’s good practice to do so wherever possible. Where it’s not possible the publicity should point this out.

Food Hygiene

If you are serving food to the public it needs to have been prepared and stored in accordance with food hygiene regulations. Someone with a food hygiene certificate should take responsibility for managing the catering.Premises that are regularly used for food preparation are inspected by the local council from time to time.


If you are planning a major event and do expect to have enough car parking space it is wise to talk to the Police about what other arrangements might be possible. If you need to keep kerbsides clear on certain roads you can hire traffic cones from the Police for this purpose.

Child Protection

Your organisation should have a Child Protection Policy and your event should comply with this. If it does not, or if this is a privately organised function, you need to be aware of child protection issues. At the very least any volunteers working with children must have had a Criminal Records Bureau (CRB) check.

Source by Francene Mullings

The Fine Art of Fingering – Using Your Fingers to Give a Woman Mind Blowing Multiple Orgasms

Orgasm, rightly put is that point during a sexual session when all the muscles that got tensed during arousal suddenly relaxes thus sending a woman into streams and streams of mind blowing intense sexual sensation. This intense sexual sensation i.e. orgasm is the single most desired point that a woman wants to get to during any particular sexual encounter that she engages in. Unfortunately, this is hardly or rarely achievable by most women which mean that they are hardly ever satisfied after engaging in the sexual act. The truth is, due the way the woman physiology is arranged, she has to be in a particular sexual mode before she can reach orgasm.

Unlike males who can almost always ejaculate whenever they have penetrative sex, females need to be gradually stimulated into the exact sexual mode that is necessary for her to orgasm. The easiest and almost always guaranteed way to stimulate a woman into this mode is known as the act of foreplay. Foreplay involves a lot of effective techniques but in this write up, we shall concentrate on a very effective foreplay technique simply known as the fine art of fingering. Yes, you can indeed use your fingers to give a woman mind blowing multiple orgasms consistently.

Ensure that your fingers are properly filed so that you would not unknowingly hurt her down there. Below are some of the fingering tips that if properly used will give a woman multiple clitoral and vaginal orgasms regularly.

Tip 1

Most times, the first thing that you would do before your really get into the act of foreplay is kissing. Your hands and fingers can play a vital role while kissing her in the sense that you a supposed to use your hands to cup her face so that your palms will gently cradle her jaw line and your thumbs will be in front of her cheek bones. This way, you will certainly make her toes to curl and her knees to buckles.

Tip 2

You will gently use your hand to run through her body, up and down gently. Concentrate a little bit on her buttocks area too.

Tip 3

After running your hand and fingers through her body for a while, now is the perfect time to go over and concentrate on her breast area most especially her nipples. Gently caress, squeeze and stimulate her breast until she begins to breathe faster and harder.

Tip 4

I have purposely left out her vagina area until now because you are supposed to gently and gradually stimulate her, it is not proper to rush in and attack her vagina either with your fingers or penis when you have not worked on the other erogenous parts of her body. Now when you get to her vagina, most of the fingering work that needs to be done down there in other to give her clitoral orgasm will be done on the clitoris. Gently rub and massage her clitoris in a way that gives her the most intense sensation.

Tip 5

In order to give your woman vaginal orgasm, you have to use your fingers to locate and stimulate the erogenous G-spot. The G-spot is located inside the vagina; it is a small bunch of nerves about the size of a quarter located 1 – 2 inches inside and on the roof of the vaginal cavity. The best way to find it is with your finger, slide your finger up inside along the upper wall of the vagina at about a forty five degree angle. When you get to the G-spot you will know by feeling a somewhat rough patch of tissues underneath your finger. Start stimulating the G-spot with your finger by applying a light pressure on it and gently increase the pressure as she responds to stimulation.

Source by M. J. Scott